Social, intellectual, political, and economic, elements of European history, 1648 to the present., The scientific revolution, the Enlightenment,, national political revolutions, capitalism,, industrial development, overseas imperial, expansion. The formation of mass political and, social institutions, avant-garde and popular, culture, the Thirty Years' War of the 20th, century, bolshevism, fascism, the Cold War, and, the revolutions of 1989.