General and organic chemistry concepts developed, for a more thorough understanding of chemically, related environmental issues such as meeting, energy needs (including through nuclear energy),, atmospheric pollution (the greenhouse effect,, stratospheric ozone depletion, photochemical smog,, acid rain), toxicology, and plastics. Lecture,, laboratory.
Chemistry of aldehydes and ketones (reactions at, and adjacent to the carbonyl group, enolization,, conjugate addition, oxidation, reduction)., Lecture, conference, laboratory. Synthesis,, chemistry of carboxylic acids and derivatives (pKa, of acids, nucleophilic substitution of, derivatives, acyl chlorides, esters, amides,, anhydrides, nitriles). Carbohydrates, (stereochemistry, aldoketoses, aldopentoses,, aldohexoses, ketosugars, derivatives, furanose and, pyranose forms, reducing and nonreducing sugars,, disaccharides and polysaccharides); fats and oils;, aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, resonance and, molecular orbital approaches, electrophilic and, nucleophilic aromatic substitution); aromatic, nitrogen and oxygen chemistry (diazotization,, synthesis); chemistry of amines, amino acids,, peptides, proteins, DNA; other topics. Lecture,, discussion, laboratory.
Fundamental concepts of classical physical, chemistry. Thermodynamics first, second, and third, laws; phase equilibria; chemical equilibria;, kinetics theory and practice; reaction rates.
Systematic assessment of how the cell derives, metabolic energy and uses the energy to drive, biosynthetic reactions. Principles of, thermodynamics as applied to biological, transformations of energy; allosterism and enzyme, reaction mechanism; metabolic regulation in, guiding the flow of cellular metabolites; defects, in metabolic pathways; the biochemical basis of, disease.
Modern concepts of inorganic and transition-metal, chemistry with emphasis on bonding, structure,, thermodynamics, kinetics and mechanisms, and, periodic and family relationships. Atomic, structure, theories of bonding, symmetry,, molecular shapes (point groups), crystal, geometries, acid-base theories, survey of familiar, elements, boron hydrides, solid-state materials,, nomenclature, crystal field theory, molecular, orbital theory, isomerism, geometries, magnetic, and optical phenomena, spectra, synthetic methods,, organometallic compounds, cage structures,, clusters, lanthanides, actinides.
Chemical synthesis using the systematic "synthon", approach to design retrosynthetic pathways for, complex molecules. Approaches for advanced, stereochemical control. Successful synthesis, routes in the primary literature examined and the, experimental section of these articles, interpreted to successfully bridge the gap from, journal to bench.