An advanced, integrative keystone seminar, involving primary research for all senior, environmental studies majors, and taken twice for, a total of four credits. Research capstones, (theses or alternative outcomes) are based on each, student's concentration within the major and, include both oral and written components. Students, start planning their capstones during their first, enrollment in the course, and complete them in, their second enrollment. Students should have, completed all other environmental studies core, courses prior to taking this course.