Examination of the history of trends and, attitudes toward immigrants and learners of, English as a second language. Topics include the, psychological, social, and political, characteristics of bilingualism and biculturalism, in the United States and abroad. ESOL teaching is, considered in light of laws, research findings,, and second-language acquisition theory. Explores, the distinction between language difference and, disabilities and provides an overview of legal, issues pertaining to second-language learners and, special and gifted education students. Also, provides critical reading of research-based, programs, English-language proficiency standards,, and standardized test measures. Ensures that, educators are not only able to plan and implement, programs designed for the optimal learning of all, students, but also gives educators the tools to, advocate for equity in their schools and school, communities.