Theories of the nature, course, causes, and, effects of addiction to alcohol and drugs of, abuse. Conditions, processes, and patterns of, recovery. Emphasis on physiological, social, learning, and interpersonal models and theories., Natural history of onset, abuse, addiction, and, recovery; effects of intergenerational, transmission, genetic predilection, developmental, risk, and sociocultural factors; effects on, psychosocial development; impact of culture and, gender differences. Implications for treatment.