An introduction to the history and civilization of, Ancient Greece, from the early Archaic era in, mid-eighth-century B.C. to the death of Socrates, in 399 B.C. Topics include constitutional changes, from monarchy through oligarchy and tyranny to, democracy, the development of the Greek polis,, contacts with Near Eastern civilizations, hegemony, and imperialism, social structure, trade, and, colonization. Readings will focus on ancient, historical writings in translation and will, highlight the challenges in interpreting evidence, from antiquity.