The religious, social, and political dynamics of, the Islamic world, circa 1300 C.E. to present,, especially the 19th through 21st centuries., Earlier developments (e.g., the Qur'an, Muhammad,, Muslim dynasties) considered in relation to the, modern context. European colonialism, postcolonial, change, reform and "fundamentalist" movements,, Sufism, Muslim views of "modernity," and changing, understandings of politics, gender, and relations, with non-Muslims.