This course examines the principal, laws and institutions in the field of, international environmental law. The course begins, with a review of the fundamental underpinnings of, environmental and international law, including the, precautionary principle, polluter pays principle,, state responsibility for environmental harm, and, permanent sovereignty over natural resources. The, course next examines issues of the global commons,, such as ozone depletion, climate change, and, depletion of ocean resources. It explores, international treaties to protect biological, diversity, including the Convention on, International Trade in Endangered Species, the, Convention on Biological Diversity, and the, International Convention for the Regulation of, Whaling. It also examines major pollution issues,, such as hazardous waste trade. Throughout these, discussions, we examine development issues, the, polarization of issues as developed and developing, country issues, and the role of nongovernmental, organizations (NGOs) in the development and, enforcement of international environmental law.