Social, intellectual, political, and economic
elements of European history, 1648 to the present.
The scientific revolution, the Enlightenment,
national political revolutions, capitalism,
industrial development, overseas imperial
expansion. The formation of mass political and
social institutions, avant-garde and popular
culture, the Thirty Years' War of the 20th
century, bolshevism, fascism, the Cold War, and
the revolutions of 1989.